Sunday, April 4, 2010

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

Konsep pengajaran dan pembelajaran sekarang lebih banyak berasaskan kepada integrasi segala pengetahuan (pedagogi, psikologi, sosiologi dan lain-lain) ke dalam kemahiran sesuatu mata pelajaran tersebut. Oleh itu saya mengambil kesempatan untuk berkongsi ilmu ini dengan rakan2 yang sudi dan sanggup meluangkan masa membaca petikan ini sebagai pengetahuan dalam mengikuti arus perkembangan dunia pendidikan. Latihan guru sekarang banyak berasaskan kepada konsep PCK ini. Semoga ilmu ini memberi manfaat kepada kita sebagai pentadbir dan juga sebagai GB siswazah lulusan UPSI.

Shulman (1986) advanced thinking about teacher knowledge by introducing the idea of pedagogical content knowledge. He claimed that the emphases on teachers subject knowledge and pedagogy were being treated as mutually exclusive domains in research concerned with these domains (1987, p.6). The practical consequence of such exclusion was production of teacher education programs in which a focus on either subject matter or pedagogy dominated. To address this dichotomy, he proposed to consider the necessary relationship between the two by introducing the notion of PCK.

This knowledge includes knowing what teaching approaches fit the content, and likewise, knowing how elements of the content can be arranged for better teaching. This knowledge is different from the knowledge of a disciplinary expert and also from the general pedagogical knowledge shared by teachers across disciplines. PCK is concerned with the representation and formulation of concepts, pedagogical techniques, knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn, knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology. It also involves knowledge of teaching strategies that incorporate appropriate conceptual representations, to address learner difficulties and misconceptions and foster meaningful understanding. It also includes knowledge of what the students bring to the learning situation, knowledge that might be either facilitative or dysfunctional for the particular learning task at hand. This knowledge of students includes their strategies, prior conceptions (both “na├»ve” and instructionally produced); misconceptions students are likely to have about a particular domain and potential misapplications of prior knowledge.

PCK exists at the intersection of content and pedagogy. Thus it does not refer to a simple consideration of both content and pedagogy, together but in isolation; but rather to an amalgam of content and pedagogy thus enabling transformation of content into pedagogically powerful forms. PCK represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular aspects of subject matter are organized, adapted, and represented for instruction. Shulman argued that having knowledge of subject matter and general pedagogical strategies, though necessary, were not sufficient for capturing the knowledge of good teachers. To characterize the complex ways in which teachers think about how particular content should be taught, he argued for “pedagogical content knowledge” as the content knowledge that deals with the teaching process, including the “the ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others” (p. 9). If teachers were to be successful they would have to confront both issues (of content and pedagogy) simultaneously, by embodying “the aspects of content most germane to its teachability” (Shulman, 1986, p. 9). At the heart of PCK is the manner in which subject matter is transformed for teaching. This occurs when the teacher interprets the subject matter, finding different ways to represent it and make it accessible to learners.

The notion of PCK has been extended (and critiqued) by scholars after Shulman (for instance see Cochran, DeRuiter, & King, 1993; van Driel, Verloop, & De Vos, 1998). In fact, Shulman’s initial description of teacher knowledge included many more categories (such as curriculum knowledge, knowledge of educational contexts, etc.). Matters are further complicated by the fact that Shulman has himself proposed multiple lists in different publications, that lack, in his own words, “great cross-article consistency” (Shulman, 1986; p. 8). Our emphasis on PCK is based on Shulman’s acknowledgement that “pedagogical content knowledge is of special interest because it identifies the distinctive bodies of knowledge for teaching. It represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction” (p. 8). Moreover, our emphasis on PCK is consistent with the work of many other scholars and recent educational reform documents. Since its introduction in 1987, PCK has become a widely useful and used notion. For instance in the area of science education scholars such as Anderson and Mitchner (1994); Hewson and Hewson (1988); Cochran, King, and DeRuiter (1993); and professional organizations such as the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA, 1999) and National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE, 1997) have all emphasized the value of PCK for teacher preparation and teacher professional development. An analysis of “Teacher Educator’s handbook: Building a knowledge base for the preparation of teachers” (Murray, 1996) shows Shulman as the fourth most cited author of the close to 1500 authors in the book’s author index with an overwhelming majority of those references made to this concept of PCK (Murray, 1996, referred by Segall, 2004). The notion of PCK, since its introduction in 1987, has permeated the scholarship that deals with teacher education in general and the subject matter education in particular (See for example, Ball, 1996; Cochran, King & DeRuiter, 1993; Grossman, 1990; Ma, 1999; Shulman, 1987; Wilson, Shulman, & Richert, 1987). It is valued as an epistemological concept that usefully blends together the traditionally separated knowledge bases of content and pedagogy.


Diagrammatically, we can represent Shulman’s contribution to the scholarship of teacher knowledge by connecting the two circles, so that their intersection represents Pedagogical Content Knowledge as the interplay between pedagogy and content. In Shulman’s words, this intersection contains within it, “the most regularly taught topics in one’s subject area, the most useful forms of representation of those ideas, the most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations - in a word, the ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others” (Shulman, 1986, p. 9).

Although Shulman did not discuss technology and its relationship to pedagogy and content, we do not believe that these issues were considered unimportant. Rather, the intent is to now bring explicit attention to these issues by considering how technology interacts with pedagogy as Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), with content as Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), and jointly as Technological Pedagogical Content Konwledge (TPCK).

21 comments:

zorro said...

aiiikkk, rasa berat la entry ni, mkn sebab tu ramai tak respond lg.

pengetahuan pedagogi ke, isi kandungan pengetahuan ke atawa apa2 pun jangan lupa pengetahuan pengalaman juga penting.manusia belajar dari pengelaman sendiri atawa pun org lain punya pengelaman.

melalui pemerhatian kita juga belajar dan dpt belajar.

zaaaap mengzaaaap juga satu pengetahuan pengalaman,pedagogi dan teknologikal. heeeheeeeeeeee. tak gitu ka faris...????!!!!

oooiiii, males aku nak baca....

Faris said...

Zorro,
Malas nak baca semuanya tak apa. At least kau baca juga sedikit. Berkongsi ilmu aje Zorro. Kalau baik, ambil.
Memang entri ni berat dan ilmiah. Kan dah penat berdebat pasal perlantikan.

Anonymous said...

Ya la tu, nanti aku respon secara ilmiah juga. tungguuuuuuuu.zzzaaaaaaaaappppppp.

noris said...

TQ Faris.Kalau seorang guru yang baik,dia akan menggunakan pelbagai pedagogi supaya muridnya mudah terima dan faham ilmu yang diajar.
Tapi teknik pengajaran guru2 veteran pun baik juga, murid cepat faham.Tapi veteran yang rajin lah...mungkin macam zorro....kot...
Murid takut kena zaaaaaapp....

jon said...

tq faris..info berguna.saya setuju.taklah cikgu hanya ngajar content je.tak berkembang budak.

zorro said...

noris....

teknik mengawal kelas, mmg banyak.tapi kita kena suaikan dgn keadaan dan persekitaran.guru lama mmg hebat kalu diberikan motivasi.

ada sesetengah nya suaranya perlahan,murid beri tumpuan,ada yg suara kuat murid tak hirau pun.apapun masing2 ada aura dan gayanya yg tersendiri.

aku bkn setakat zaaaappp murid, guru dan pekerja yg ingkar prosedur kerja aku mmg ZAAAAAPPPP habis.

ni tengah fikir mcm mana nak zaaaappppp pekerja yg ponteng waktiu kerja. huuiii beban tugas GB.... tak nak kaji ke?

zorro said...

sbgmana yg aku dijajikan.mkn penerangan ilmiah ini betul atawa tidak.lu fikirlah sendiri......

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) adalah satu kerangka memahami dan menerangkan jenis2 pengetahuan yg diperlukan oleh guru-guru untuk teknologi integrasi yg berkesan. Idea ini ( pedagogical content knowledge) mula dihuraikan oleh Lee Shulman dan TPACK dihasilkan atas idea utama dgn mengambil kira teknologi.. Matthew Koehler dan Punya Mishra, kedua nya adalah “associate professors” di Michigan State University, telah menjalankan kerja yg ekstensif dlm merekabentuk TPACK.
Kerangka kerja TPACK bukan bermaksud teknologi baru mesti diperkenalkan,tetapi ianya berhubung dgn idea kreatif yg sedia ada yg diguna pakai oleh para pendidik. Setiap komponen2 teknologi,pedagogi dan content mesti semuanya berada dlm kerangka kerja kontekstual.
PCK dlm P&P Sains
Apa itu PCK? mengikut Shulman (1986) , PCK mengambilkira "yg penting dlm representasi topik, analogi yg penting, illustrasi, contoh2, penerangan2, dan demonstrasi2 – dlm kata lain, cara atawa kaedah representasi dan formulasi subjek yg membuat ia difahami oleh orang lain.PCK juga mengambil kira pemahaman mudah atau susah mempelajari topic yg spesifik.oleh pelajar yg berlainan umur, latarbelakang yg dibawa bersama dari pembelajaran yg sering diajar dlm topik2.
PCK adalah akumulasi dari elemen2 biasa;
• Knowledge of subject matter
• Knowledge of students and possible misconceptions
• Knowledge of curricula
• Knowledge of general pedagogy.
PCK adalah mengetahui apa,bila,mengapa dan bagaimana cara mengajar menggunakan pengetahuan yg banyak dlm amalan pengajaran yg baik dan berpengalaman..

mcm mmana faris, leh tak cara penerangan aku ni...heeee aku pun nak buat masterla kalu gini caranya....

sori le kalau aku zaaaaaaaaaappp aje.

jon said...

prof zorro. padat, kemas dan jitu u punye penerangan.tak yah buat master.kau pun dah master..master zappp

zorro said...

jon....aku masterji aje.

kalu setakat nak zaaaaaapppppp boleh juga.kena buat research sikit. maklumla nak respon entri yg berilmiah ni.

sekali sekala saja nak test zaaaappppppp aku ni. leh tak jon...ko faham ke penerangan yg aku beri tu?

Anonymous said...

I'm really enjoying the theme/design of your blog. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility issues? A number of my blog readers have complained about my website not working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Chrome. Do you have any tips to help fix this problem?
My site ; Fisting for Cutie who loves the action

Anonymous said...

I think the admin of this web site is actually working hard for his web site, for the reason
that here every data is quality based material.
My weblog :: Daily XXX Video Fix of teen porn with naked girls sex movies

Anonymous said...

Hello to every body, it's my first pay a quick visit of this website; this website consists of remarkable and really good data in favor of readers.
Visit my webpage :: http://www.teenpornpost.com/

Anonymous said...

Fantastic items from you, man. I have be aware your stuff previous to
and you are just extremely great. I actually like what you have
obtained here, certainly like what you're stating and the way in which by which you assert it. You are making it enjoyable and you still care for to stay it sensible. I can not wait to learn far more from you. That is actually a tremendous website.
Visit my homepage - Bubbly Blonde On The Casting Couch

Anonymous said...

Wow, this piece of writing is pleasant, my sister is analyzing such things, so I am going to
inform her.
Here is my web site :: www.Bhgalleries.com

Anonymous said...

Having read this I believed it was rather informative. I appreciate you spending some time and effort to put this content together.

I once again find myself spending a significant amount of time both reading and leaving
comments. But so what, it was still worth it!
My web site ; Free Teen Porn

Anonymous said...

Usually I do not learn article on blogs, but I wish to say that
this write-up very compelled me to try and do it!

Your writing style has been surprised me. Thanks, very nice article.
My web site - Breaking news

Anonymous said...

I don't know whether it's just me or if everybody else experiencing problems
with your website. It appears as if some of the
written text on your content are running off the screen.
Can somebody else please provide feedback and let me know if
this is happening to them too? This could be a issue with my web browser because I've had this happen before. Kudos
My web site visit the following internet site

Anonymous said...

Nice post. I used to be checking constantly this weblog and I'm inspired! Extremely useful info particularly the closing part :) I deal with such information a lot. I was looking for this certain info for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.
my page - london escort

Anonymous said...

It's remarkable designed for me to have a web page, which is beneficial for my know-how. thanks admin

Look into my blog - blowjobsstreet.org

Anonymous said...

WOW just what I was looking for. Came here by searching for college free gay porn

Feel free to visit my web page www.cuteteenporn.Net

Anonymous said...

I delight in, lead to I discovered just what I was looking for.

You've ended my four day long hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Bye

My web-site - http://www.babesflick.com/video/10248/six-girls-and-three-guys-pool-party.html

Share

Twitter Delicious Facebook Digg Stumbleupon Favorites